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Tag Archives: University of Manitoba

Friday Science Review: November 19, 2010

Mobile Phones Increase Patient Adherence in HIV Clinical Study

University of Nairobi ♦ University of Manitoba ♦ University of British Columbia

Published in Lancet, November 9, 2010

Researchers recently demonstrated the effectiveness of mobile phones as a tool to bolster patient adherence to an HIV treatment regime. Better adherence to treatment reduced HIV-1 RNA load and may improve patient outcome. Patients receiving anti-retroviral therapy (ART) in Kenya were placed into one of two treatment groups. Both treatment groups received ART but only one received SMS support from healthcare workers. Clinicians sent weekly reminders to patients in the SMS intervention group, upon which they had to reply to confirm adherence within 48h. Adherence to therapy was observed in 168 of 273 patients in the SMS intervention group, and 132 of 265 in the control group, confirming that communication between healthcare workers and patients increased adherence. Suppressed viral loads were documented in 156 of 273 and 128 of 265 patients in the SMS intervention and control groups respectively, providing clear evidence that mobile phone reminders can improve outcome in patients receiving ART. Mobile phone usage is expected to be a useful mechanism to promote ART adherence in resource limiting environments, such as Africa, and is also an important measure for program cost containment. UNAIDS, the Joint United Nations Program on HIV/AIDS, is supporting the use of mobile technologies for future AIDS response.

A Molecular Circuit of Congenital Heart Disease Revealed

University of Ottawa ♦ University of Montreal

Published in PNAS, November 9, 2010

Congenital heart disease (CHD) is the primary (non-infectious) cause of death in infants within the first year of life. The incidence of CHD is now estimated to be a shocking 5% of live births, with less severe undiagnosed cases leading to increased risk of mortality, stroke, and ischemic heart disease. By elucidating a pathway contributing to congenital heart defects, researchers are now closer to grasping the causes of these developmental mishaps. Normal heart development requires differentiation, proliferation, and communication between two adjacent layers of tissue composed of endocardial and myocardial cells. The transcription factors Tbx5 and GATA4 are key players in this process, ensuring that correct myocardial patterning and chamber specification occur. In this study led by Dr. Mona Nemer of the University of Ottawa, researchers implicate Tbx5 in normal heart development by showing that its deletion in mice causes severe atrial defects. After going on the hunt for modifiers of Tbx5 they later identified the gene Nos3. Interestingly, Nos3 is known to be regulated by several factors that increase risk of congenital heart disease including stress and diabetes. These findings illustrate a direct link between environmental cues and the development of atrial defects.

Cisplatin and ING4-carrying Adenovirus Elicit Synergistic Anticancer Activity

Soochow University ♦ University of Saskatchewan

Published in Cell Gene Therapy (npg), November 5, 2010

Combinatorial approaches to the treatment of cancer have been of great interest to the scientific and medical communities as they provide a means to sensitize cancer cells to small molecule drugs. The combination of sensitizing agents and conventional chemotherapeutics has been shown to reduce tumour size more rapidly, prevent cancer cell resistance, and reduce side effects by lowering the dose of cytotoxic small molecule drugs required for therapy. In a joint study between Soochow University, China; and the University of Saskatchewan, researchers have shown that the adenoviral delivery of the tumour supressor ING4 (Ad-ING4) along with cisplatin induces synergistic growth inhibition and apoptosis in a hepatocarcinoma cell line both in vitro and in vivo. In this study researchers reported the upregulation of several protein markers associated with apoptosis and down regulation of the oncogene Bcl-2 in the presence of the Ad-ING4 vector and cisplatin. Importantly, the combination of these agents did not elicit overlapping toxicities in in vivo normal liver tissues of mice suggesting that it could have potential as a future treatment for hepatocarcinoma.

Friday Science Review: March 13, 2009

Training Brains:  Sheena Josselyn’s lab at SickKids specifically erased a fear memory in mice by selectively ablating CREB neurons using an inducible diptheria toxin.  Let me break this down, because it’s so unbelievably cool: 

  • they trained mice to be afraid of a sound,
  • then they destroyed some specific cells in the brains of the mice,
  • then the mice forgot that they were afraid of the sound.

The mice were subsequently able to learn new things, like how to find cheese in a maze, and were even able to learn to be afraid of the same sound again.  Between this and the mind-reading experiment in the UK this week, it’s enough to give you a serious bout of insomnia … which often lasts over a year, according to researchers at Laval.

Gout Rout: Dr. Hyon Choi and colleagues at the University of British Columbia reported in Monday’s issue of the Archives of Internal Medicine, that Vitamin C appeared to lower the levels of uric acid in the blood, and that men who take in more vitamin C appear to be less likely to develop gout, a painful type of arthritis.

Beef Relief: Researchers using Bioniche’s E. coli O157 vaccine, Econiche™, published a study in Foodborne Pathogens and Disease showing that vaccinated cattle were 92% less likely to be colonized with E. coli O157:H7 than non-vaccinated cattle (odds ratio (OR)=0.07, p=0.0008). This is the second published study demonstrating more than 90% effectiveness of the Bioniche vaccine against colonization.

Anti-cancer Advancers:

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