The Cross-Border Biotech Blog

Biotechnology, Health and Business in Canada, the United States and Worldwide

Tag Archives: Universite de Montreal

Friday Science Review: September 4, 2009

Potential future therapeutic options…

Dabigatran versus Warfarin: Dabigatran (PRADAX®, Boehringer-Ingelheim) was compared with warfarin (a commonly used anti-coagulant) in a large scale study for the treatment of patients with atrial fibrillations.  The trial demonstrated that the group of patients taking the higher dose of Dabigatran had significantly reduced risk of stroke compared to patients on warfarin but with similar risk of hemorrhaging.  With a lower dose of Dabigatran, they achieved protection from strokes that was similar to that afforded patients using warfarin but with a significantly reduced risk of major bleeding.  Dabigatran is the first alternative therapy option to warfarin treatment showing efficacy and improved safety to patients.  The global study was headquartered out of Hamilton at McMaster University and Hamilton Health Science Centre and appears in this week’s The New England Journal of Medicine.

Drug combo for Bell Palsy: Combinatorial therapy may be a better treatment method to improve the facial paralysis symptom of Bell Palsy patients. In the study lead by Dr. John de Almeida at Sunnybrook Health Science Centre, they compared the standard treatment with corticosteroids alone versus corticosteroids supplemented with antiviral drugs.  It is thought that a herpes infection is likely the cause of the disorder.  As the patients appeared to have experienced a slight incremental benefit from the combo therapy, the researchers will continue their study to provide a definitive answer.  The report was published in the current issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA).

Key finds from studying protein structure:

  • The RAF family of proteins is an integral component of the RAS signaling module involved in cell growth, differentiation and survival.  This new structural study on BRAF revealed that its catalytic function is regulated by a “side-to-side” dimerization mode.  Interestingly, a mutation found in oncogenic versions of BRAF is located in this dimerization interface and promotes aberrant activation.  Surely, the side-to-side dimer interface of BRAF will be a potential target for therapeutic intervention against BRAF-dependent tumorigenesis.  This exciting research was lead by a collaborative effort between Dr. Frank Sicheri at the Samuel Lunenfeld Research Institute in Toronto and Dr. Marc Therrien at Université de Montréal and published in the early edition of Nature.
  • New insight into how bacteria can steal iron from its host was revealed through structural studies of the bacteria’s transferrin receptor.  The bacterial transferrin receptor binds to the host’s iron containing transferrin protein, extracts the iron and transports it across the membrane.  When they mutated a critical residue at the interface of this interaction, binding was completely abolished.  Perhaps these results from Dr. Anthony Schryvers’ research team at the University of Calgary will lead to future directions for antimicrobial therapeutics.  The study was published in the recent edition of Molecular Cell.

Nervous system development in today’s issue of Cell…

  • Researchers revealed how the neural-specific SR-related protein of 100 kDa (nSR100) is responsible for facilitating alternative transcript splicing specifically in the nervous system.  nSR100 is required for neural cell differentiation and contributes to the greater complexity of the vertebrate nervous system.  The research was lead by Dr. Benjamin Blencowe at the University of Toronto’s Donnelly Centre for Cellular and Biomolecular Research.

Bookmark and Share

Friday Science Review: August 28, 2009

A Montreal flavour this week…

Critical link between EGFR and Src oncogenes: On the heels of last week’s Friday Science Review post on Stat3 in breast cancer, Dr. William Muller’s research team at McGill University has published another significant find linking well known oncogenes, Src and EGFR/ErbB2.  Among their results, they demonstrated how Src can interact with some mutant EGFR receptors (identified in lung cancers) but not with wild type EGFR.  When a Src inhibitor was applied to cells expressing mutant EGFR, it attenuated the cancer-inducing potential of these EGFR mutants.  This suggests that Src is an important enzyme in the EGFR mutant signaling pathway and may present an alternate pathway to combat cancer cell resistance to EGFR inhibitors.

Details of this study are described in this week’s Molecular and Cellular Biology.

MET oncogene in breast cancer: Next door to the Muller Lab at the new Goodman Cancer Centre in Montreal is Dr. Morag Park and her research team who recently generated a mouse model to mimic and study the Met oncogene in breast cancer.  The results were a complex cancer phenotype where gene expression and histological profiles demonstrated similarities to aggressive human breast cancers expressing Met.  Whereas prior to their study, Met was only correlated with poor outcome in breast cancer patients, this mouse model provides the specific link and identifies clinical cases where anti-Met therapy may be beneficial.

You can read more about it here in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

Key proteins in Natural Killer Cells: Also this week, Dr. André Veillette’s lab at the Institut de recherches cliniques de Montréal (IRCM) generated new insight into how Natural Killer Cells combat cancers of the blood, such as leukemias and lymphomas, or virus-infected blood cells.  As part of our immune system, the defense function of Natural Killer Cells requires three small proteins named SAP, EAT-2 and ERT that are unique to immune cells.  The proteins relay information from the cell surface SLAM family receptors to direct immune activities.  These data may eventually lead to pharmacological methods to increase the activity of Natural Killer Cells in destroying blood cancer cells or virus-infected cells.

Veillette’s lab generated knock-out mice missing all three proteins, which led to their findings, which are published in the latest edition of Nature Immunology.

p53 is regulated by JNK: p53 is a tumor suppressor protein that plays an important role in regulating cell growth and survival.  Its critical functions in the cell require p53 to be highly regulated through multiple layers of control, both to turn on and to turn off the protein’s activities.  One such method recently described in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences is through phosphorylation by the enzyme JNK.  This phosphorylation protects p53 from being targeted for destruction, thereby allowing p53 complexes to form and continue with their gene activating activities.

This research project was a collaboration between the Burnam Institute in San Diego and Dr. Katherine Borden’s team at the Université de Montréal.

Jurassic Park (for real?): Can you convert a chicken embryo to develop into a dinosaur?  No, this is not the makings of a movie but the idea of paleontologist Hans Larsson of McGill University who is proposing to try to make it work.  The theory is that by manipulating or swapping certain “switch” genes during the chicken embryo’s development, he can reproduce some features of a dinosaur.  He does not actually intend to hatch live prehistoric animals – for obvious reasons:

“It’s a demonstration of evolution,” said Larsson, who has studied bird evolution for the last 10 years.

“If I can demonstrate clearly that the potential for dinosaur anatomical development exists in birds, then it again proves that birds are direct descendants of dinosaurs.”

“We’re not going to hatch a T. rex or something,” Larsson chuckles.

The idea came to him after meeting Jack Horner, author of the book “How to Build A Dinosaur” and the technical advisor behind the Hollywood version of Jurassic Park.

Come back to the Friday Science Review (perhaps in a few years) for an update on the “chickensaurus” experiment…

Bookmark and Share

Friday Science Review: Sunday Edition

ErlenmeyersHello, loyal readers.  Welcome to the Sunday Edition of the Friday Science Review.  Sorry for the delay … turns out my day job is sometimes a day and night and next day and next night job.  Anyway, this one’s worth the wait.  Lots of cool science on a cool Spring weekend here in Canada after the jump…

Friday Science Review: Old School and New School Edition

Science Old School:

Erlenmeyers
Mark Samuels’ lab at Dalhousie used positional cloning to identify a novel protein (dubbed SLC25A38 … catchy!) that appears to be responsible for a form of congenital sideroblastic anemia.  They also show that SLC25A38 is involved in heme biosynthesis.  The paper appeared among Nature Genetics’ advance publications this week. 

Science New School:

800px-DNA-Sequencers_from_Flickr_57080968
A pair of scientists at the University of Victoria in BC published a paper in PLoS One this week using computer-based homology searching and structure prediction algorithms to identify a homolog of PCNA (a protein required for lagging strand DNA replication) in Vaccinia, a dsDNA virus, indicating that lagging strand replication mechanisms are conserved across dsDNA entities from viruses to eukaryotes.

Not too far away, at Simon Fraser University, Dr. Sahinalp’s lab developed a search algorithm that may be able to help distinguish ncRNA’s (non-coding RNA) from background genomic sequences.  The paper also appeared in PLoS One and the algorithm itself is available at http://compbio.cs.sfu.ca/taverna/smyrna.

 

Bookmark and Share

Follow

Get every new post delivered to your Inbox.

Join 126 other followers