The Cross-Border Biotech Blog

Biotechnology, Health and Business in Canada, the United States and Worldwide

Tag Archives: stem cell

Monday Deal Review: November 4, 2013

  Welcome to your Monday Biotech Deal Review for November 4, 2013! A number of financings have closed in the past week, with a few more placement being announced as well.  Prometric is continuing with its public offering, while OPMEDIC is continuing with its amalgamation which will take the company private.

Follow the link to see the full week’s worth of major biotech stories!

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Friday Science Review: May 7, 2010

Amazing!  Three Nature papers this week…

Cracking the Code: The human body is much more complex than the 20,000 or so genes that are encoded in our DNA.  This multiplicity of genetic messages is enhanced by alternative gene splicing, a process where different segments of DNA exons are spliced together to create a different gene message.  It is possible to create hundreds of new messages from a single gene.  The so called “splicing code” or rules that determines how and where a particular part of a gene is spliced with another segment was deciphered by researchers at the University of Toronto.  They can now accurately predict how genetic messages are rearranged on a large scale.  Hundreds of different RNA features are taken into account including certain factors in specific tissues to give rise to tissue specific expression.  This is an amazing discovery by Drs. Brendan Frey and Benjamin Blencowe that garnered the cover story in this week’s Nature journal.

Stem Cells on Hormones: The ovarian hormone, progesterone, stimulates breast stem cells as its levels peak during the natural reproductive cycle.  Researchers observed up to a 14-fold expansion of breast stem cells at peak progesterone levels in a mouse model.  This is the first evidence of a direct link between hormones and breast stem cells.  Since cancers are thought to initiate from stem cells, if there are other oncogenic factors pushing the system this may be a critical point that ultimately drives the start of a cancer.  There are implications of this study to further understanding how reproductive history is a strong risk factor for breast cancer and may lead to therapeutic intervention.  The research team at Princess Margaret Hospital, University Health Network was led by Dr. Rama Khokha and describes their work in Nature.

Reversing HER2 Breast Cancer: Through genomic studies of HER2 positive breast cancer, it was noted that the 14-3-3sigma gene was frequently missing.  After several years of hard work focusing on this gene, researchers have demonstrated that the 14-3-3sigma gene does indeed play a specific role in the development and function of breast epithelial tissue.  In the absence of 14-3-3sigma, the normally organized and polarized sheets of epithelial cells clump together and lose polarity.  It is this loss of organization without 14-3-3sigma that likely contributes to breast cancer progression.  From a therapeutic standpoint, the reintroduction of 14-3-3sigma into HER2 positive breast cancer cells resulted in the restoration of cell polarity and opens a window for further studies as a pathway to target.  Dr. William Muller (my former mentor) and his team at McGill University describe their research in the early edition of Genes and Development.

Bionic Muscle: Artificial proteins were assembled together in a fashion that mimics the molecular spring structure of a muscle protein called Titin, which is a very large protein that gives muscle tissue its unique properties of strength, extensibility and resilience.  This is why muscle has superior elasticity.  The biomaterial looks like a string of beads and although it exhibits only some of the mechanical characteristics of muscle tissue, its structure can be adjusted to provide specific properties of different types of muscle.  There are obvious future applications of this technology in regenerative medicine and tissue engineering.  Drs. Hongbin Li and John Gosline at the University of British Columbia present their work in this week’s Nature journal.

Friday Science Review: February 19, 2010

Hunks and pigs highlight this week’s research wrap-up…

HUNKs Stop Cancer Metastasis: Researchers screening tumour cells found that expression of the enzyme HUNK (Hormonally Up-regulated Neu-associated Kinase) is significantly lower in cancers.  When they reconstituted HUNK into metastatic cancer cells, it decreased their metastastic potential when tested in mouse cancer models.  Its actions block the association of PP2A and cofilin-1 and prevent the formation of actin filaments, which are key skeletal proteins involved in the cell migration process.  Dr. Tak Mak led the research team at the Campbell Family Institute for Breast Cancer Research and published the study in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

Malaria Research Gets Genomic Help: A genome-wide study on the parasite Plasmodium falciparum should help researchers in the hunt for new drugs against malaria.  The genome of 189 malaria samples from around the world were decoded and analyzed to try to identify key genes that are responsible for the parasite’s propensity to evolve and become resistant to currently available drug treatments.  These data are invaluable for the design of future therapeutic approaches.  An international team was co-led by Dr. Philip Awadalla at the Université de Montréal and reports their work in the current issue of Nature Genetics.

Genetic Clues to Diabetes: Using a genome-wide association approach, 13 SNPs concentrated in 4 genetic regions were identified to be strongly correlated with glycemic control in type 1 diabetes.  For example, SORCS1 is strongly associated with hypoglycemia (low blood glucose) and BNC2 is correlated with eye and kidney complications.  This study is a first for suggesting that there may be a genetic contribution to the individual’s ability to control blood glucose levels.  The Hospital for Sick Children’s Dr. Andrew Paterson led the study, which appears in the journal Diabetes.

Porky Pig to the Rescue: Scientists revealed a significant advantage to transplanting porcine pancreatic islet cells as a therapeutic for diabetes.  In contrast to using human islet cells, porcine derived cells do not result in the formation of islet amyloids, which allows them to continue functioning properly for the long term.  They attribute this porcine advantage to differences in the sequences of islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP).  Dr. Bruce Verchere’s team at the University of British Columbia describes their work in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

In (un)related news, Guelph University’s genetically engineered pigs or “Enviropigs” were given the OK by Environment Canada as being non-toxic to the environment.  Now they await Health Canada’s nod before they appear in your local supermarket.

Stem Cells Don’t Mind DNA Damage: Canadian scientists have discovered that stem cells intentionally damage their own DNA in order to regulate development… continue reading the rest of the story here at the Stem Cell Network Blog.

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Friday Science Review: December 4, 2009

Universal Cancer Signalling Pathway: This is an interesting new twist on cancer signalling that may make scientists rethink how to tackle the disease.  It is thought that there is no single cure for cancer as the hetergenous disease may arise from mutations in a number of different pathways.  In this report, however, researchers demonstrate that many of the cancers converge on HIF-2a, part of the oxygen-sensing system that is required for tumours to grow.  By inhibiting HIF-2a, they could attenuate the growth of a diverse number of aggressive cancers including glioblastomas, colorectal tumours, and non-small cell lung carcinomas.  This universal cancer axis converging on HIF-2a could turn out to be a silver-bullet for cancer therapy.   Dr. Stephen Lee at the University of Ottawa led the team and describes the research in the online edition of the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

SKP’ing Stem Cells: A special type of cell called SKPs (skin-derived precursors) may be the elusive adult dermal stem cell involved in regenerating skin, wound-healing, and keeping hair healthy and growing.  In the study, researchers characterized the specialized population of cells and determined that SKPs can self-renew, maintain their ability to transform into other cells types, and regenerate hair follicles or other dermal cell types when grafted.  These properties are suggestive that SKPs are indeed THE dermal stem cells and may have important future applications such as in hair restoration and wound-healing.  Dr. Jeffrey Biernaskie completed the research in the lab of Dr. Freda Miller at Sickkids Hospital and recently started his own group at the University of Calgary.  The report appears in this latest edition of Cell Stem Cell.

Comparative Genomics Links Autism and Schizophrenia: A new study comparing the genomes of autistic patients and schizophrenic patients proved the connection between the two disorders that were previously thought to share behavioural similarities.  Both illnesses are associated with anomalies in the same region of the genome but differ substantially in the nature of the genetic changes.  Part of the genomic region is missing in autistic patients whereas extra copies of the genome are present in schizophrenic patients.  The affected genes appear to control head size and brain growth with overdevelopment of the brain in autistic patients and underdevelopment in schizophrenics.  By knowing that the two disorders are genetically linked, research on one disorder immediately provides clues for the other and will aid in advancing treatment options for both.  The study was conducted by Dr. Bernard Crespi’s group at Simon Fraser University and is reported in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

Signalling Links in Neurological Disorders: Perturbations in either Dopamine or BDNF (brain-derived nerutrophic factor) pathways are implicated in neurological disorders.  Researchers have now defined the molecular relationship linking the two pathways to similar disorders.  The calcium signalling cascade is the key intermediate between dopamine receptor activation and BDNF production leading to neuronal growth.  With this new understanding of the pathways associated with schizophrenia, depression, and drug addiction, additional molecular targets are available for potential therapeutic intervention.  The study was led by Dr. Susan George at the Centre for Addiction and Mental Health (Toronto) and is reported in the early online edition of the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

Small Molecule Pathway Database: SMPDB (www.smpdb.ca) is an interactive, visual database containing more than 350 small-molecule pathways found in humans.  It is designed to support drug discovery research and pathway elucidation by employing clinical metabolomics, transcriptomics, proteomics and systems biology information.  The pathways describe relevant organs, organelles, subcellular compartments, protein cofactors, protein locations, metabolite locations, chemical structures and protein quaternary structures.  SMPBP is a very useful tool that was put together by Dr. David Wishart’s group at the University of Alberta and is described in detail in Nucleic Acids Research.

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