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Tag Archives: metastasis

Friday Science Review: June 4, 2010

New fixes for spinal injury, Staph infection and cancers…

Spinal Cord Self-Repair: A natural repair mechanism in our bodies may be the key to treating spinal-cord injuries.  Following a spinal cord injury, there is an increase in expression of serotonin receptors and the receptors are spontaneously active even in the absence of serotonin.  This autoactivation is thought to be a response or repair mechanism that is initiated as a result of the injury.  Pharmacological agents may be used to try to enhance this receptor activity to promote recovery.  The caveat, however, is that the receptors remain “on” and may explain the spasms experienced by spinal injury patients.  In this case, inhibitory drugs may be beneficial to preventing these muscle spasms.  Dr. Karim Fouad and his team conducted the research at the University of Alberta (Edmonton) and present their work in Nature Medicine.

Super Bug’s Magic Revealed:  MRSA, or methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, is a strain of Staph that has become resistant to most types of antibiotics.  Scientists now know why and what makes a harmless bacteria become pathogenic Super Bugs.  A small chemical (aureusimines) made by MRSA bugs is the key factor that determines their virulence and ability to cause severe disease.  The researchers discovered how these chemicals are made in the bacterium and then tried to shut off the different pathways involved in the synthesis of these chemicals.   Blocking aureusimine production resulted in a much weaker and less virulent bug, which allowed the mouse model patients to recover from S. aureus infections.  This information comes at a crucial time when drug resistance is on the rise and new anti-bacterial targets are desperately needed.  McMaster University scientists led by Dr. Nathan Magarvey describe their breakthrough discovery in the latest Science magazine.

Controlling Cell Growth: The research of Dr. Nahaum Sonenberg and his McGill University team on the mechanisms controlling cell growth and proliferation have had significant impact in advancing the field.  They continue their key discoveries with the delineation of mTORC1 and the 4E-BP proteins.  Although mTORC1 is known to be involved in connecting growth and nutrient signals to control cell size and cell division, 4E-BPs are only involved in mediating the cell proliferation pathway and not cell growth.  This distinction is important because mTORC1 is implicated in a variety of diseases and these related pathways are targets for therapeutic drugs, so further refinements can be made accordingly.  The report is published here in Science magazine.

A Cancer Cure in Sponge? A peptide found in sea sponge can inhibit tumour cell metastasis.  The Neopetrosiamide A (NeoA) peptide prevents tumour cells from sticking to surfaces by decreasing cell surface proteins such as integrins and inducing the disassembly of structural complexes called focal adhesions.  Its mechanism of action is unknown but it somehow causes important “sticky” proteins to be kicked out of the cell rather than trafficking to their proper locations.  This is a developing story to keep an eye on.  The study is published in PLoS One by Dr. Calvin Roskelley’s team at the University of British Columbia.

Friday Science Review: February 19, 2010

Hunks and pigs highlight this week’s research wrap-up…

HUNKs Stop Cancer Metastasis: Researchers screening tumour cells found that expression of the enzyme HUNK (Hormonally Up-regulated Neu-associated Kinase) is significantly lower in cancers.  When they reconstituted HUNK into metastatic cancer cells, it decreased their metastastic potential when tested in mouse cancer models.  Its actions block the association of PP2A and cofilin-1 and prevent the formation of actin filaments, which are key skeletal proteins involved in the cell migration process.  Dr. Tak Mak led the research team at the Campbell Family Institute for Breast Cancer Research and published the study in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

Malaria Research Gets Genomic Help: A genome-wide study on the parasite Plasmodium falciparum should help researchers in the hunt for new drugs against malaria.  The genome of 189 malaria samples from around the world were decoded and analyzed to try to identify key genes that are responsible for the parasite’s propensity to evolve and become resistant to currently available drug treatments.  These data are invaluable for the design of future therapeutic approaches.  An international team was co-led by Dr. Philip Awadalla at the Université de Montréal and reports their work in the current issue of Nature Genetics.

Genetic Clues to Diabetes: Using a genome-wide association approach, 13 SNPs concentrated in 4 genetic regions were identified to be strongly correlated with glycemic control in type 1 diabetes.  For example, SORCS1 is strongly associated with hypoglycemia (low blood glucose) and BNC2 is correlated with eye and kidney complications.  This study is a first for suggesting that there may be a genetic contribution to the individual’s ability to control blood glucose levels.  The Hospital for Sick Children’s Dr. Andrew Paterson led the study, which appears in the journal Diabetes.

Porky Pig to the Rescue: Scientists revealed a significant advantage to transplanting porcine pancreatic islet cells as a therapeutic for diabetes.  In contrast to using human islet cells, porcine derived cells do not result in the formation of islet amyloids, which allows them to continue functioning properly for the long term.  They attribute this porcine advantage to differences in the sequences of islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP).  Dr. Bruce Verchere’s team at the University of British Columbia describes their work in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

In (un)related news, Guelph University’s genetically engineered pigs or “Enviropigs” were given the OK by Environment Canada as being non-toxic to the environment.  Now they await Health Canada’s nod before they appear in your local supermarket.

Stem Cells Don’t Mind DNA Damage: Canadian scientists have discovered that stem cells intentionally damage their own DNA in order to regulate development… continue reading the rest of the story here at the Stem Cell Network Blog.

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