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Tag Archives: islets of Langerhans

Friday Science Review: February 19, 2010

Hunks and pigs highlight this week’s research wrap-up…

HUNKs Stop Cancer Metastasis: Researchers screening tumour cells found that expression of the enzyme HUNK (Hormonally Up-regulated Neu-associated Kinase) is significantly lower in cancers.  When they reconstituted HUNK into metastatic cancer cells, it decreased their metastastic potential when tested in mouse cancer models.  Its actions block the association of PP2A and cofilin-1 and prevent the formation of actin filaments, which are key skeletal proteins involved in the cell migration process.  Dr. Tak Mak led the research team at the Campbell Family Institute for Breast Cancer Research and published the study in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

Malaria Research Gets Genomic Help: A genome-wide study on the parasite Plasmodium falciparum should help researchers in the hunt for new drugs against malaria.  The genome of 189 malaria samples from around the world were decoded and analyzed to try to identify key genes that are responsible for the parasite’s propensity to evolve and become resistant to currently available drug treatments.  These data are invaluable for the design of future therapeutic approaches.  An international team was co-led by Dr. Philip Awadalla at the Université de Montréal and reports their work in the current issue of Nature Genetics.

Genetic Clues to Diabetes: Using a genome-wide association approach, 13 SNPs concentrated in 4 genetic regions were identified to be strongly correlated with glycemic control in type 1 diabetes.  For example, SORCS1 is strongly associated with hypoglycemia (low blood glucose) and BNC2 is correlated with eye and kidney complications.  This study is a first for suggesting that there may be a genetic contribution to the individual’s ability to control blood glucose levels.  The Hospital for Sick Children’s Dr. Andrew Paterson led the study, which appears in the journal Diabetes.

Porky Pig to the Rescue: Scientists revealed a significant advantage to transplanting porcine pancreatic islet cells as a therapeutic for diabetes.  In contrast to using human islet cells, porcine derived cells do not result in the formation of islet amyloids, which allows them to continue functioning properly for the long term.  They attribute this porcine advantage to differences in the sequences of islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP).  Dr. Bruce Verchere’s team at the University of British Columbia describes their work in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

In (un)related news, Guelph University’s genetically engineered pigs or “Enviropigs” were given the OK by Environment Canada as being non-toxic to the environment.  Now they await Health Canada’s nod before they appear in your local supermarket.

Stem Cells Don’t Mind DNA Damage: Canadian scientists have discovered that stem cells intentionally damage their own DNA in order to regulate development… continue reading the rest of the story here at the Stem Cell Network Blog.

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Friday Science Review: February 12, 2010

New Discovery for Neonatal Diabetes: Researchers uncovered an important role for the Rfx6 gene.  Its integrity is required for normal development of the islets of Langerhans cells in the pancreas that produces important hormones including insulin.  Genetic mutations found in Rfx6 are the cause of severe neonatal diabetes where there are no insulin producing islets of Langerhans cells.  To prove the critical role of Rfx6 in directing the differentiation of early pancreatic cells, researchers disrupted the gene in mice and observed the development of an identical disorder as displayed in humans.   Identifying the gene is a key piece of the puzzle and will lead to new avenues to find treatments for all types of diabetes.  Dr. Constantin Polychronakos and his team at McGill University collaborated with researchers from UCSF and report their study in the on-line edition of Nature.

Controlling Stem Cell Fate: A genome-wide screen identified the PCL2 (polycomb-like 2) gene as a key decision maker in determining the fate of stem cells.  This is an important area of research because stem cell based therapies in regenerative medicine are on the rise but more thorough understanding of stem cell control is necessary for safety reasons.  In the absence of PCL2, stem cells can no longer differentiate into specialized cells regardless of adding stimulating factors to try to push it to differentiate.  Once they re-introduced PCL2 into the stem cells, they were able to drive differentiation again.  By mapping the network of genes that PCL2 regulates, they can trace the steps in the path of a stem cell in becoming one of the many cell types in our body.  University of Toronto scientist, Dr. William Stanford and his team describe their research in the journal Cell Stem Cell.

Stem Cell Prediction: This is a neat study.  Researchers generated an algorithm to predict the future of a stem cell – whether it divides and self-renew as stem cells or produce alternate cell types.  They recorded video of retinal progenitor cells under the microscope to ‘observe’ the cell’s characteristic dynamic behaviour and movements just prior to dividing.  This information was computed to generate a predictive algorithm that was tested to be (amazingly!) 99% accurate in identifying cells that will self-renew as stem cells and 87% correct in predicting a differentiation cell fate.  This may lead to new tools to help scientists isolate pure populations of stem cells for their future studies.  Dr. Michel Cayouette’s group at the Institut de Recherches Cliniques de Montréal presents their work in this week’s edition of Nature Methods.

Genomics of Flesh-eating Disease: The genomic sequences of Streptococcus bacterial strains from past epidemics in Ontario were determined in a study involving Canadian and US researchers.  They identified and compared single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) between the strains and found that they were different by an average of only 49 SNPs.  Each strain, however, also contained unique sequences that could be used for tracking purposes in future outbreaks.  Some genes were highly variable, which is information that they can use to try to understand the bacterial virulence factors at play in gaining an advantage over the infected person.  These comparative pathogenomic studies are invaluable for microbial epidemiology research and for shedding light on new potential targets for antibiotic drugs.  Drs. Donald Low and Allison McGeer at Mount Sinai Hospital participated in the research that is reported in this week’s edition of the Proceedings of The National Academy of Sciences.

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