The Cross-Border Biotech Blog

Biotechnology, Health and Business in Canada, the United States and Worldwide

Tag Archives: Gene Therapy

Friday Science Review: April 16, 2010

An amazing week of Canadian research advancements…

Cancer Genome Project is Well Underway: The Ontario Institute for Cancer Research (OICR), who is leading the International Cancer Genome Consortium (ICGC), published a report this week in Nature outlining the international effort to sequence 25,000 cancer genomes – 500 genomes from each of the 50 most common cancers such as breast, colon, liver, lung, and pancreatic cancers.  Some partial datasets are already available to the global research community at www.icgc.org.  This is truly a Herculean effort that is only possible because of the international collaborative effort of over 200 members around the globe.  Whole cancer genome sequencing will provide a fundamental base to advance personalized medicine to the next level.  Here is the original OICR press release and you can read a more comprehensive ‘Scientific American’ style news feature article on the cancer genome project here in the same issue of Nature.

Seek and Destory: Non-Hodgkins lymphoma cancer is taking a big hit from a newly discovered compound that destroys lymphoma cells.  The small molecule compound targets and blocks a transcription factor called BCL6, which is responsible for half of non-Hodgkins lymphoma cases.  Scientists started with the 3D structure of the BCL6 protein and used computer-aided drug design to perform in silico screening of over a million compounds.  They eventually narrowed it down to this one compound that proved to be efficacious and also non-toxic.  Dr. Gilbert Prive at the University Health Network led the innovative project that demonstrates the success of a computational approach to drug design and the ability to target transcriptions factors with minimal side effects.  Read all about it! – in the free full text article in Cancer Cell.

Divide and Conquer: Cell division is a complicated process with the synchronized dance of chromosomes segregating to each new cell.  It is a poorly understood process but research is this field is advancing with the discovery of new essential proteins involved in cell divisionDr. Laurence Pelletier (Samuel Lunenfeld Research Institute) and his collaborators in Europe used a combination of RNAi tools and mass spectrometry techniques to identify the components of protein complexes involved in cell division.  As cancer cells are hyperactive dividing cells, this new information will also aid in the advancement of cancer targeting therapeutics.  The study appears in the journal Science.

The Missing Link: Many have suspected that there must be some link or relationship between stress, anxiety and depression.  Now there is molecular evidence that this is true.  The connection involves the interaction between corticotropin releasing factor receptor 1 (CRFR1) and certain types of serotonin receptors (5-HTRs).  CRFR1 activity leads to stress related anxiety and it also stimulates an increase in the number of 5-HTRs in the brain, which can lead to signaling abnormalities causing depression.  The team headed by Dr. Stephen Ferguson at the University of Western Ontario also developed a small molecule inhibitor that blocks 5-HTRs.  Let’s hope this inhibitor and knowledge of the molecular links lead to more effective treatments for these disorders.  Check out the free full-text article in Nature Neuroscience.

Smart Buggers:  Understanding how bacteria become resistant to last-resort antibiotic drugs just got a boost from a McMaster University study.  Vancomycin resistant methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus (VMRSA), also known as the hospital superbug, is a rapidly growing problem with limited effective solutions.  The research team identified the histidine kinase VanSsc protein as the direct vancomycin detector in bacteria, which then triggers the expression of three genes that provide the drug resistance.  This is the first important step in redesigning antibiotic drugs to effectively fight these little buggers.   Dr. Gerry Wright and his collaborators published their exciting work in Nature Chemical Biology.

Not Just a Bad Golf Shot: Scientists have identified mutations in the SHANK3 gene that are associated with schizophrenia.  SHANK3 is a scaffolding protein involved in the formation of the synapse and maintains the structure of nerve cells.  Dr. Guy Rouleau’s team at the Université de Montréal discovered the new mutations (R1117X and R536W) in two families with schizophrenia patients where one of these families had three affected brothers.  Further molecular and genetic studies in zebrafish models confirmed that the R1117X mutation causes behavioural defects.  Earlier studies linked SHANK3 mutations to autism, which suggests that there is a molecular connection between the two neurological disorders.  The findings are reported in this week’s edition of the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

Gene Therapy is Still Alive: The promise of gene therapeutics to cure diseases may not have lived up to the hype presented a decade ago but there are still some hopeful successes using gene therapy.  One recent example comes from Laval University where researchers repaired the defective dystrophin gene responsible for Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). In some cases of DMD, the dystrophin gene is misread causing a frame-shift mutation.  These frame-shift mutations may be targeted and repaired by enzymes called meganucleases.  A proof-of-principle project by Dr. Jacques Tremblay demonstrated that expression of specific meganucleases in the muscle of a DMD mouse model can restore the normal reading frame of a mutated dystrophin gene.  More details in this week’s edition of Gene Therapy.

Friday Science Review: October 30, 2009

Regenerative medicine and Cross-border awards…

Gene Therapy Saves Donor Lungs: A technique using gene therapy on donor lungs before transplantation may be used to repair and save damaged lungs, making them potentially suitable for transplantation into patients.  The procedure involves first preserving the lungs at normal body temperature in a protective chamber called the Toronto XVIVO Lung Perfusion System, which continuously pumps a solution of oxygen, proteins and nutrients.  Next, adenovirus gene therapy is used to introduce the IL-10 cytokine gene into the lungs.  IL-10 helps to decrease inflammation, which would lead to improved health and function of the donor lungs and better outcome for the patient.

Dr. Shaf Keshavjee, the project leader at the McEwen Centre for Regenerative Medicine, describes the rationale:

“It’s as if gene therapy turbocharges each individual cell to manufacture many more proteins in its own IL-10 factory.”

“This protein down-regulates or decreases the inflammatory potential of cells injured before and during the transplant process. It also has the capacity to turn down the recipient’s immune system which rejects the transplanted organ.”

The research study is reported in this week’s issue of Science, Translational Medicine.

A Platform to Test Cardiac Cell Therapy:  A model system for evaluating stem cell transplant in cardiac cell therapy to repair damaged heart tissue is described in this study by Drs. Peter Zandstra and Milica Radisic’s team at the University of Toronto.  Using their engineered heart tissue (EHT) as the analytical platform, they applied stem-cell derived cardiac cells and measured molecular and electrophysiological parameters of the EHT.  The system was verified as a predictive strategy to interrogate different cell transplantation conditions for the capacity to survive and functionally integrate into heart tissue.  This tool should help researchers accelerate development of cardiac cell therapy strategies and it can also provide mechanistic insight into the challenges of a successful transplant.  On a personalized medicine theme, an advantage of the system is that the EHTs are customizable and can be derived from individuals for patient specific testing prior to the actual treatment.  The study appears in this week’s edition of the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

“Cross-border” Cancer Stem Cell Therapy Award: The Collaborative Partnership Program between the California Institute for Regenerative Medicine (CIRM) and the Cancer Stem Cell Consortium (CSCC) in Canada have awarded two internationally recognized Canadian researchers with support to lead their respective cancer stem cell based therapy projects.

One project will develop agents to directly target leukemic stem cells that are resistant to current therapies.  This will be co-led by Dr. John Dick, Princess Margaret Hospital and Dr. Dennis Carson, University of California San Diego.

The other project will develop small molecules targeting cancer-initiating cells within solid tumor cancers and will be co-led by Dr. Tak Mak, Princess Margaret Hospital and Dr. Dennis Slamon, University of California, Los Angeles.

The awards offer each project up to $40 million (USD) over four years, with funding for the Canadian investigators contributed by Genome Canada and Canadian Institutes of Health Research through the CSCC and funding for the Californian investigators contributed by CIRM.

Congratulations to Drs. John Dick and Tak Mak!

Top 10The Scientist magazine ranked Dalhousie University in Halifax and the University of Toronto in the top 10 best places to work in academia outside of the U.S. Based on a web survey of scientists regarding job satisfaction, pay, research resources and relationships with their peers and management, Dalhousie ranked 5th and U of T came in at 10th place.  It is very nice to see Canadian institutions and our great research environment recognized by peers around the world.

Friday Science Review: Good News, Bad News Edition

Good news: If you happen to be in Montréal on Monday, you should check out the opening of the  Centre de pharmacogénomique Beaulieu-Saucier de l’Université de Montréal (that’s the Beaulieu-Saucier Centre for Pharmacogenomics at the University of Montréal, y’all).  It will be great to see what comes out of this centre for Canadian personalized medicine.

Bad news: If you happen to have been relying on a Nature paper from 2000 in which researchers in Canada and South Korea said they used gene therapy to reverse Type 1 diabetes, you should reconsider.

Good news: If you happen to do a science fair project that dovetails with a Minister’s legislative efforts, you could be famous.  Also, don’t drive and talk.

Bad news: If you were excited about the availability of private clinics in Canada offering CT and PET scans, you should read this new study from the Canadian Center for Policy Alternatives first, which found that there are prevalent misconceptions about the safety and regulation of these screening technologies.

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Wednesday Brain Dump: February 4, 2009

Some good news on the gene therapy front in adenosine deaminase-deficient SCID patients and in rheumatoid arthritis.

But mostly bad news on the job front at GSK, AstraZenecaAbbott,  GenVecPatheon, and others.

Other good news on the approvals front for Parusgel (despite process concerns), KapidexLamictalGelnique and Taxus Liberte.

Really small news: Nanomaterials may be heading for increased regulation in Canada, with a mandatory reporting program reportedly pending and a new guide from IRSST in Quebec (pdf) (although the IRSST guide doesn’t mention bio-materials).

Just NICE news: Comparative Effectiveness may be headed for some changes in the UK, where NICE is working on a review.

Positively Biblical news: The lion lies down with the lamb (or something equally unlikely)

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