Insulin + Pancreatic Stem Cells, Proof of Life
University of Toronto ♦ Published in Cell Stem Cell, Mar. 4, 2011
The origin of insulin-producing pancreatic β-cells has been a matter of contentious debate. Some research groups have produced findings that would suggest β-cells duplicate themselves and that new β-cells do not arise from the differentiation of a more primitive pancreatic progenitor. Other groups have proven the existence of pancreas-derived multipotent progenitors (PMPs) that are capable of giving rise to a spectrum of cells from both the pancreatic and neural lineage. So where do β-cells come from?
New results from the lab of Dr. Derek van der Kooy point in the direction of PMPs. Lineage labeling experiments in mice showed that PMPs originate from the embryonic pancreas, as opposed to the neural crest, which has often been cited as the source of pancreatic progenitors. These findings are in conflict with previous studies which could not provide evidence of pancreatic progenitors in the developing embryo or the adult. Convincingly, Dr. van der Kooy’s group was able to show that PMPs express insulin in vivo, an attribute that has often been considered prerequisite for the production of β-cells.
Analysis of human islet tissue showed that PMPs also exist in humans, and, similar to the mouse PMPs under observation, were capable of differentiation to both the pancreatic and neural lineages. Both mouse and human PMPs were able to alleviate diabetic conditions in mice and may provide another avenue to explore in the pursuit of therapeutic cells for transplantation therapy.
Selective Pressures Shape the Genomic Integrity of Human iPS Cells During Reprogramming
Samuel Lunenfeld Research Institute ♦ Ontario Institute for Cancer Research ♦ The Hospital for Sick Children ♦ University of Toronto
Published in Nature, Mar. 3, 2011
Coercing fibroblasts to revert to an embryonic stem cell-like state places a good deal of stress on the genome. The consequences of reprogramming can affect the development of safe populations of cells for therapeutics, which is why researchers at the Samuel Lunenfeld Research Institute have been interested in understanding how the reprogramming process affects genomic integrity. The integrity of a genome can be measured using copy number variation (CNV) within a population of cells. CNVs arise from deletions or duplications in DNA; as variation increases, the integrity of the genome declines.
In this study supervised by Dr. Andras Nagy and Dr. Timo Otonkoski, researchers characterized the CNV content of 22 human iPS cell lines and 17 human ES cell lines using Affymetrix SNP arrays. Induced pluripotent cell lines were created by way of retroviral transduction or with the use of a transposon known as piggybac. The number of CNVs in iPS cells was roughly twice that found in ES cells on average and many CNVs found in iPS cells were undetectable in ES cells suggesting that CNVs are generated during the reprogramming process. To the surprise of the group the number of CNVs in iPS cells was greatest at early stages, and decreased as cells were passaged in culture.
Researchers hypothesized that the reduction in copy number variation could be the result of two things, firstly, a DNA repair mechanism that corrects deletions and additions as the cells grow and divide in vitro, or mosaicism in early cultures followed by selection of iPS cells that have lower variation and greater genomic stability; a survival of the fittest in a way. It is unlikely that a DNA repair mechanism could operate fast enough to account for the rapid reduction of CNVs observed in iPS cells in culture and indeed, after using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), it was confirmed by the lab group that mosaicism did exist in early cultures of iPS cells. In order to prove that selection was driving the decrease in CNVs researchers focused on deletions that cannot be corrected by DNA repair mechanisms. They found that several of these deletions were selected against during passaging of iPS cell lines. This pressure was bidirectional however, as some CNVs were selected for, not against.
CIITA, A Promiscuous Partner in Lymphoid Cancers
Centre for Translational and Applied Genomics ♦ BC Cancer Agency ♦ University of British Columbia
Published in Nature, Mar. 2, 2011
Chromosomal translocation events are a common abnormality leading to the development of cancer but few have been described as contributors to the development of lymphoid cancers. A new chromosomal translocation event has been implicated in the development of Hodgkin lymphoma and primary mediastinal B-cell lymphoma (PMBCL). Large scale mutations of this nature occur when non-homologous chromosomes transiently stick together and cause breakages that lead to the exchange of genetic information. If genes are placed next to one another following the translocation event, fusion transcripts are created which can lead to cellular abnormalities and malignant expansion.
Genome-wide mapping of translocation events can be carried out using paired-end sequencing of expressed transcripts. Researchers used such a platform to analyze two Hodgkin lymphoma cell lines. Analysis uncovered a highly expressed gene fusion between the MHC class II complex (CIITA) and an uncharacterized gene. Further analysis of 263 B-cell lymphoma cell lines went on to show that the CIITA translocation was highly recurrent in PMBCL (38%) and Hodgkin lymphoma (15%). The genetic event appears to be quite specific to PMBCL as it was observed in only 3% of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma cell lines.
Researchers note that although certain translocation events of very specific rearrangements are key contributors to some B-cell lymphomas, resulting in unique clinopathological features, many well characterized B-cell lymphomas still lack identifiable translocations that define the disease. Translocations in B-cell lymphomas are a rare occurrence, and until the publication of this research, no translocations had ever been reported in PMBCL.