Friday Science Review: November 5, 2010
November 5, 2010
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A Deadly Competitor: The marine bacterium Vibrio cholerae has built-in mechanisms that may allow it to compete with other species of bacteria and better colonize its host. Researchers recently discovered a secretion system (T6SS) in V. cholerae allowing it to inject toxic substrates directly into the cytoplasm of prey. Now a group at the University of Alberta, led by Dr. Stefan Pukatzki, has shown that this strain of bacteria aggressively competes against a number of gram-negative bacteria including Escherichia coli and Salmonella and was able to reduce E. coli survival by 100,000-fold. It would be interesting to see whether the disruption of T6SS could be used as a tool to put a damper on cholera outbreaks and/or increase the time between outbreaks. Find the study published in PNAS.
Signature of Kidney Disease: The most common form of glomerular-based kidney disease is IgA nephropathy (IgAN). Roughly 40% of patients suffering from the disease will experience kidney failure in 10 years. The strongest predictor of clinical outcome in IgAN is proteinuria, or elevated levels of protein in the blood – often albumin. Researchers at the University of Toronto have identified what appears to be a genetic signature of the disease. An in vitro model of proteinuria was created by exposing primary human kidney tubular epithelial cells to high levels of albumin. Gene expression in these cells was then measured with a microarray to derive a panel of 231 “albumin-regulated genes” that were upregulated or repressed as a result of albumin exposure. Researchers then translated this to the clinic by analyzing biopsy samples from patients with IgAN. What they found is that they were able to perfectly segregate biopsy samples from control samples. Convincingly, the panel could be reduced to 11 genes and be used to distinguish any form of primary glomerulonephritis from control, suggesting that this signature could have great utility in predicting clinical outcome in glomerular-based kidney disease in the future. This study included researchers from the University of Toronto, University of Michigan, and University Hospital Zurich in Switzerland. Find it here in PLoS ONE.
Thyroid On the Move: The congenital endocrine disorder hypothyroidism results from improper differentiation, migration, or growth of thyroid tissue. In a majority of cases (~80%), incomplete migration leads to ectopic thyroid tissue. Previous studies with identical twins suggest that the disease is almost certainly caused by somatic mutations or epigenetics as in some cases there have been discordance rates of up to 92%. In a recent study published in PLoS ONE, scientists used microarray analysis to uncover 1011 genes that were either induced or repressed by a factor of 2-fold in ectopic thyroid nodules. Grouping of these genes into gene ontology groups using DAVID (Database for Annotation, Visualization, and Integrated Discovery) identified several clusters of genes related to development and organogenesis. After validating many of these genes, 19 were isolated as being exclusively related to thyroid ectopy. Genes involved in embyronic development (TXNIP) and the Wnt pathway were among those that contributed most to formation. Further work on a larger cohort of patients may allow for elucidation of the molecular mechanisms behind defective thyroid migration during early embryogenesis.