Friday Science Review: February 26, 2010
February 26, 2010
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A few medical research applications this week…
Personalized Medicine – for Lung Cancer: To develop a personalized medicine approach to treating non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), researchers generated a xenograft model where they implant human tumour tissue into the renal capsule of a host mouse. As the tumour establishes itself, the mouse then becomes the platform for testing various chemotherapy regimes (cisplatin+vinorelbine; cisplatin+docetaxel; cisplatin+gemcitabine) to determine which one or combination therapy is the most effective against each of the different tumours. They compared the results of the treatments in mice to retrospective patient outcomes and found significant correlation to consider the xenograft model a success. Although it takes about 6-8 weeks for the results, they believe that it is quick enough to gain an insightful preliminary assessment of the potential therapeutic outcome. Dr. Yuzhuo Wang led his team at the BC Cancer Agency and reports their work in Clinical Cancer Research.
HIV-1 Molecular Manipulations: HIV-1 infected patients exhibit a loss of CD4+ T cells, which are essential players in the defense against viral infections. A new study reveals how the HIV-1 protein, Vpr, activates the Natural Killer (NK) cells by inducing the expression of stress-related proteins at the cell surface of CD4+ T cells. The NK cells recognize the stress signals on CD4+ T cells and attacks and destroy these cells, leaving the patient with severely reduced CD4+ T cells. Researchers also noticed that the continuous activation of NK cells eventually desensitizes them and they eventually lose their ability to perform their normal duties in attacking infected cells. The molecular mechanisms of Vpr discovered in this study should help in future research leading to new therapeutic strategies. Dr. Éric Cohen and his team at the Institut de recherches cliniques de Montréal describe their research in last week’s issue of Blood.
Protecting Your Heart: The blood pressure cuff you see in every doctor’s office can be used to limit the severity of heart attacks by triggering a molecular response in the body that protects the heart during an attack. It is called remote ischemic preconditioning where the blood pressure cuff is used to intermittently cut off blood flow to the arm during an attack. This triggers an innate response warning message throughout the body to release molecules to protect itself from the lack of blood flow. In this particular study, the size of the heart attacks were reduced by 30-50% compared to control groups. It is one of the most effective treatments and is relatively simple to administer. Dr. Andrew Redington at The Hospital for Sick Children led the international study and is published in the The Lancet.